Top producing statesCropsRecommended VarietiesPlanting dateHarvesting datesFERTILIZATION
Niger, Kaduna, Taraba, Plateu, AdamawaMaizeOPV=Sammaz 14, 15, 27, 52, 53, 54, HYBRID=Oba Super 1 and 2April-May and July- August in South, May-June in North regionJuly-August and November-December in South region, September-October in Northern region120:60:60 of NPK
Bauchi, Borno, Zamfara, Yobe, GombeSorghumSamsorg 17, 38, 40, 41May-JuneSeptember-october60:30:30 of NPK
Edo, Oyo, Osun, Ondo, OgunCocoaCriollos, Forasteros, TrinitarioMay-JuneNovember-January10 bags SSP + 2.5 BAGS MOP
Enugu, Imo, Ondo, Edo, Cross RiverOil palmDura, Pisifera, TeneraMay-JuneJune-August12:12:17:2 of NPKMG @ 14g/seedling
Kaduna, Ogun, Kano, Taraba, BenueRiceFARO 44, NERICA 7, NERICA 8, FARO 52May-JuneSeptember-october60:30:30 for savanna, 80:30:30 for forest
Kaduna, Kano, Jigawa, Katsina, SokotopepperSakarho, Kashin Burgu, Kimba, Samaru square BigJune-JulyOctober-November100:50:50 of NPK
Kano, Jigawa, Katsina, Zamfara, SokotoTomatoRoma VF, Red rock, Ife 1 June-JulyOctober-December100:50:50 of NPK
Kano, Kaduna, Jigawa, Sokoto, PlateauOnionKano Red, Wuyan Bijimi, Ex- Hunkuyi, Maiduguri Improved, Ex- DalaOctober-NovemberMarch-April120:60:60 of NPK
PESTS AND DISEASES MANAGEMENT FOR MAIZE PRODUCTION  
Pest and disease management:Symptoms & Research RecommendationsUPL-SPF SOLUTION
-           Pests:Identified pests of maize include:
Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais):
-           They attack maize grains in store
-           Damage is caused by larvae and adult weevils
-           Adults are reddish-brown to blackwith four reddish-orange circular markings on the wings
-           Larva feed for approximately 25 days inside the grain, pupation occur inside the grain and the adult chew its way out of the grain
-           Total development period range from 35-110 days.
stem borers (B usseola fusca ): STEM BORER: USE LANCER (ACEPHATE 75 SP) @ 800 G/HA AND LANCER GOLD (ACEPHATE 50%+IMIDACHLOPRID 5% WG) @ 1 KG/HA 2-3 SPRAY DEPENDING ON LEVEL OF INFESTATION
-           They attack maize stem on the field
-           Damage is largely caused by Larvae
-           Larvae may bore into the stalk at soil level, tunnel upward causing dead heart or climb up the stem and tunnel downward into the whorl
-           Damage may be confined to weedy border rows, grass water ways, contour strips and no-till fields
-           They can be identified by unrolling the whorl or damaged plant
-           Larvae are creamy in colour with a dark brown or purple band around the body.
-           Several dark lengthwise stripes may be present which may be absent in fully grown larvae
Chemical control
Apply 1 litre/ha of cypermethrin 10 EC or Lamda cyhalothrin 2.5 E for control of stems borers and army worms.
Armywormsarmyworms ( Pseudodaletia unipuncta )Armyworms
-           They attack maize leaves on the field USE LANCER (ACEPHATE 75 SP) @ 800 G/HA AND LANCER GOLD (ACEPHATE 50%+IMIDACHLOPRID 5% WG) @ 1 KG/HA 2-3 SPRAY DEPENDING ON LEVEL OF INFESTATION.
-           Damage is caused by larvae which invade the corn field in large numbers
-           Armyworms usually feed at night and damage corn by chewing leaves.Sucking pests (THRIPS, APHIDS, JASSID AND WHITE FLIES) USE RENOVA @ 80 G/HA.
-           Damage is usually first noticeable around the field margins
-           Damage may be confined to weedy border rows, grass water ways, contour strips and no-till fieldsLANCER GOLD:- 2-3 SPRAY CAN BE ROTATED WITH IMIDACLOPRID 20% SL OR RENOVA.
-           Ragged leaf feeding is evidence of armyworm feeding.
-           The full-grown armyworm has a greenish brown body with a thin stripe down the center and two orange stripes along each side. The head is brown with dark honeycombed markings.LANCER GOLD IS BROAD SPECTRUM INSECTICIDES, WHEN THERE IS MULTIPLE INSECT ATTACK (SUCKING PEST+ARMY WORM OR STEM BORER).
-            
Chemical control
Apply 1 litre/ha of cypermethrin 10 EC or Lamdacyhalothrin 2.5 E for control of stems borers and army worms.
-           Bacteria diseases
Bacterial WiltBacterial Wilt: The causal agent of bacterial wilt is Erwinia stewartii which is transmitted by the corn flea beetle.
Symptoms
-           Pale green to yellow streaks with irregular or wavy margins that parallel the leaf veins. The streaks may extend the length of the leaf.
-           Infections are most common early in the pre-tassel (whorl) stage, or after tasseling.
-           Early season symptoms include plant death: seedlings infected with Stewart's Wilt wilt rapidly and die.
-           Dark brown cavities in the lower stalk pith with no evidence of insect injury on the lower stalk.
Management
-           Cultural practices include: crop rotation, Plant resistant hybrids and varieties.
-           Maintain adequate fertilization levels, particularly that of calcium and potassium. Avoid high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus
-           Avoid excess soil moisture as this can make plants more susceptible to the disease
-           Early application of insecticides to control infestations of corn flea beetles.
FUNGAL DISEASES: USE
-           Fungal disease SPRINGZEB 2 KG/HA AS GENERAL FUNGICIDE. MANCOZEB IS A BROAD SPECTRUM CONTANCT FUNGICIDE TO BE USED AS A PROTECTANT FUNGICIDE. A REGULAR SPRAY AT 7-10 DAYS INTERVAL IS REQUIRED TO ACHIEVE OPTIMUM DISEASE CONTROL
ANTHRACNOSEAnthracnose : caused by the fungus Colletotrichum graminicola SAAF 500-750 G/HA:- IT IS A PROTECTIVE+SYSTEMIC FUNGICIDE TO CONTROL DISESASE DURING VEGETATIVE STAGE. FOR FOLIAR SPRAY USE 4-5 G/L OF WATER. SEED TREATMENT @ 500 G/HA AT KNEE HIGH STAGE
GLORY 1.5KG/HA: USE TO CONTROL FUNGAL RUST AND DISEASE AT REPRODUCTIVE STAGE.
Symptoms
-           Small, round to irregular, water-soaked spots first appear on lower leaves.
-           Spots later turn yellow and then brown with reddish-brown borders.
-           Yellow zones often develop around the leaf spots (see figure at right).
-           Numerous spots can cause leaf tips or entire leaves to turn yellow.
Management
Cultural practices
-           Use of resistance plant varieties
-           Adequate soil fertility management
-           Rouging of infected plants
LEAF BLIGHTLEAF BLIGHT: Caused by fungus Exserohilum turcicum
Symptoms
-           Gray-green and elliptical at the early stage of infection (1-2 weeks)
-           Pale gray to tan as they enlarge to 1 to 6 inches or longer
-           Distinct cigar-shaped lesions unrestricted by leaf veins
Management
-           Cultural practices include: Crop rotation, adequate tillage, use of resistance varieties
-           Application of fungicides like approach (picoxystrobin 250g/L)
LEAF RUSTLEAF RUST: Fungal disease caused by  Puccinia polysora
Symptoms
-           Small pustules, circular to elongated are common on infected leaves
-           Brown to cinnamon-brown urediniospores appear on the infected leaves
Management
-           Cultural practices include: Crop rotation, adequate tillage, use of resistance varieties
-           Application of fungicides like Headline SC (pyraclostrobin 250g/L), Prima ( picoxystrobin 250g/L)
-           Virus diseasesMaize streak virus disease(MSV):
They are caused by virus pathogen transmitted by grasshoppers
Symptoms
-           Small, round scattered yellow/white spots or flecks on the leaves which enlarge parallel to leaf veins.
-           Stunted growth is also common
-           Leave chlorosis
-           Reduced grain yield
Management
-           Planting of resistant varieties
-           Rouging and burying of infected crops [2]
-           Chemical control of the disease vector
PESTS AND DISEASES MANAGEMENT FOR RICE  
Pest and disease managementSymptoms & Research RecommendationsUPL-SPF SOLUTION
Termites
Termites ( Coptotermes spp., Macrotermes spp., Odontotermes spp. ):TERMITE
TERMISPRING:- USE TERMISPRING(CHLORPYRIPHOS 20% EC) @ 1250 ML
Symptoms
Presence of mud on stems or lodging of plantsBISECT (BIFENTHRIN 10 EC) @ 500 ML/HA
Management
- Cultural practices such as early sowing, and maintaining weed free fields to minimize Termites infestation.RENOVA:- RENOVA (THIAMETHOXAM IN WDG) @ 100G/HA
- use of resistant/tolerant varieties.
- Destroy all dead woods and plant residues.
- Locate termite mounds in surrounding bush and destroy
Chemical control
- Spray Fipronil (Fipro 50 EC) at the rate of 100mls/15L)
- Treat exposed termite mounds with Dursban 4E at the rate of 75-100ml per 15L of water
- Spray with Deltamethrin base product (e.g. Deltacan at 175-100mls/L
- Apply chloropyriphos (2 litre/ha) or carbofuradan 3G (10-15kg/ha) treatment to control termites
Army worm armyworms ( Spodoptera exempta )ARMY WORM AND STEM BORER :-
-           They attack rice leaves on the field LANCER AND LANCER GOLD.
-           Damage is caused by larvae which invade the leave field in large numbersUSE LANCER (ACEPHATE 75 SP) @ 800 G/HA AND LANCER GOLD (ACEPHATE 50%+IMIDACHLOPRID 5% WG) @ 1 KG/HA 2-3 SPRAY DEPENDING ON LEVEL OF INFESTATION
-           Armyworms usually feed at night and damage rice by chewing leaves.
-           Damage is usually first noticeable around the field margins
-           Damage may be confined to weedy border rows, grass water ways, contour strips and no-till fields
-           Ragged leaf feeding is evidence of armyworm feeding.
Identification
The full-grown armyworm has a greenish brown body with a thin stripe down the center and two orange stripes along each side.
Management
Cultural practice include: crop rotation, use tolerant varieties
- Apply 1 litre/ha of cypermethrin 10 EC or Lamdacyhalothrin 2.5 E for control of stems borers and army worms.
Stem borerstem borers (B usseola fusca ):
-           They attack maize stem on the field
-           Damage is largely caused by Larvae
-           Larvae may bore into the stalk at soil level, tunnel upward causing dead heart or climb up the stem and tunnel downward into the whorl
-           Damage may be confined to weedy border rows, grass water ways, contour strips and no-till fields
-           They can be identified by unrolling the whorl or damaged plant
Identification
-           Larvae are creamy in colour with a dark brown or purple band around the body.
-           Several dark lengthwise stripes may be present which may be absent in fully grown larvae
Management
Cultural practice include: crop rotation, use tolerant varieties
- Apply 1 litre/ha of cypermethrin 10 EC or Lamdacyhalothrin 2.5 E for control of stems borers and army worms.
Birds Birds:
The attack tillers and panicles
Symptoms
Damage on tillers and panicles
Management
Use scaring devices to control birds. Employ labourers to drive birds away from farms for the first 2 weeks after planting and from heading to harvesting.
RodentsRodents:RODDENTS
They attack all plant partsRATOLS: JINC PHOSPHIDE PRODUCT
Symptom
Ragged leaf and stem
Management
- Keep 2-3 metres border round the field free from grass, weed and burn thrash to control rodents
- Build bamboo and palm frond fence (if possible) around the field after planting
- Create openings at short intervals and place traps in the openings.
-Distribute poisons mixed with food in the uncropped margins or alleys, fencing round the field may deter rats and grasscutters. Local metal traps can also be used.
Bacterial leaf blight ( Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae)Bacteria leaf blight
Symptoms
- water-soaked spots are seen on leaf blades usually starting from leaf tips or on the edges.
- The spots increase in length and width with wavy margins and become large yellow streaks that travel the length of the blade of rice.
- in severe case Milky ooze can also be seen on the leaves.
Management
- Growing resistant varieties
- Split application of nitrogen fertilizers
- Use clean healthy seeds
-  vectors of the pathogen like borers and grass hoppers should be controlled
- chemical control include application of copper oxychloride 3g/L or Bordeaux mixture 1% (copper sulphate 20g/L + quick lime 20g/L) should be sprayed and repeated at weekly intervals
Bacterial leaf streak ( Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola)Bacterial leaf streak
It is leaf disease
Symptoms
- Initially, small, dark-green and water-soaked streaks on interveins from tillering to booting stage
·          - The progress of the streaks is longitudinal, limited by the veins and soon turn yellow or orange brown.
Management
- Cultural practice include: use of resistant varieties, and hot water treated seeds.
- Crop rotation
- Removal and destruction of ratoons, straws and volunteer seedlings left after harvest
- Good drainage system especially in seedbedsBACTERIA DISEASES
- Chemical application of Copper oxychloride 500g/kgCOPPER BASED FORMULATION: USE BB (20% COPPER SULPHATE), CUPROFIX DISPERSS (12% COPPER + 30% MANCOZEB). 
- Soaking seeds in 0.025% Streptomycine and hot water treatment at 52 0 c for 30 minutes
Rice blast ( Pyricularia grisea ) Rice blast ( Pyricularia grisea ) RICE BLAST
SymptomsBLAST (TRICYCLAZOLE 75 WP) @ 300-400 G/HA
Elliptical or spindle-shaped lesions on leaves, with pointed ends and grey or white centres; dark-green to reddish-brown margins
management
Cultural practices are:
Use diseased free seeds
Use resistant cultivars
Burn diseased straws and stubbles
split application of Nitrogen fertilizers
Chemical control are:
- Application of Diethane at the rate 0f 1.5-2 kg per hectare
- Apply Benlate (Benomy 50%) mixed in 3.8 litres of water plus 5 ml of Tenac as sticker where available sprayed at 10 days interval after seeding
- Spraying the nursery with 5 gram of Mancozeb 80% wettable powder
PESTS AND DISEASES MANAGEMENT FOR TOMATO  
Pest and disease management:Symptoms & Research RecommendationsUPL-SPF SOLUTION
PESTS
Tomato leaf miner and other catepillarsTomato leaf miner ( Tuta absoluta ): LANCER GOLD: FOR CATERPILLAR AND SUCKING PEST USE OF LANCER GOLD (ACEPHATE 50%+IMIDACHLOPRID 5% WG) @ 1 KG/HA
-           African Bollworm They attack leaf, stem and fruit
Damage is caused by the larvaeBIFENTRINN+ACETAMIPRID FOR WHITE FLY.
Symptoms
-           Thin silvery trails (tunnels) on leaves which may join together to form white blotches USE OF SPIROMESIFEN AND ABAMECTIN IN ROTATION TO MANAGE THE MITES ISSUE
-           Green larvae with black heads, and their black frass, inside the tunnels
-           Tiny holes on stems
-           Silky webs produced by larvae to fold leaf USE OF COPPER BASED COMPOUND CONTROL BACTERIAL BLIGHT
-           Holes in fruit, possibly surrounded by black frass
-           Larvae and galleries inside fruitSAAF (MANCOZEB+CARBENDAZIM) TO BE USED DURING SEEDLING AND GROWING STAGE
-           Sunscald of fruit due to leaves prematurely fallingFROM THE FLOWERING TO FRUIT DEVELOPMENT,;USE OF GLORY TO CONTROL EARLY AND LATE BLIGHT
IdentificationROOT KNOT NEMATODES-BIONEMATICIDE IS AVAILABLE WITH UPL, IT WILL TAKE ONE YEAR TO INTRODUCE THE PRODUCT.
Adults: is small, grey-brown, thin ; hide between leaves during the day
Larvae: is small, yellow-green with black heads, turning pinkishgreen with age. Found in tunnels on leaves, stem and fruit
Management
Cultural practices
-           Crop rotation
-           Use of resistance varieties
-           Remove and destroy infested plants
African Bollworm ( Helicoverpa armigera)  : African Bollworm ( Helicoverpa armigera)  :
- They cause damage to leaves, stem and fruits
- Damage is mainly caused by the larvae
Symptoms
Presence of watery untidy hole in the fruit, filled with faeces
Identification
Larvae is greenish to brown
Management
Cultural method are:
- Removal of borer infested fruits and shoots of tomato or pepper at regular intervals and prompt destruction
- Avoid planting tomato near corn or cotton to prevent heavy infestations of Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera sp.
Chemical control
- Spray with neem oil available on Benin market (2 l/ha), or use Spinosad (100 ml/ha)
·          - emamectin benzoate 1.9 EC @ 250ml/100 L water
·          indoxacarb @175 ml/100 L water/acre
·          flubendiamide @ 20ml/100 L water
-           whitefly Whitefly ( Bemisia tabaci ):
The damage the leaves
Damage is caused by adult white fly
Symptom
Presence of group of white fly underside the leaf
Yellowing, curling, crumpling of leaves occurs at heavy infestation.
Identification
Adult: The body and wings are covered in a powdery, white to slightly yellowish in colour
Larva: yellow-white scales, 0.3-0.6 mm long Puparium: flat, irregular, oval shape, 0.7 mm long
Management
- Remove crop debris, weeds and other sources of thrips at the end of each crop
- Plough and keep fields fallow for 3–4 weeks to allow thrips to emerge and disperse
- Reduce cultivation within the field to avoid movement of thrips from infected plants
- Protect transplants with mesh netting (40-mesh or higher) to exclude thrips
- Soil drenching of tomato seedlings with imidacloprid or neem is recommended to protect the crop from whitefly. A subsequent spraying after few weeks will prolong the protection
- Chemicals control
- Spray Azadirachtin 0.03% (50 ml/20L water) 15 days when symptoms appear
- Dimethoate (250g/l) + Cypermethrin (35g/l)
-           Spider mites Spider mites:
They attack tomato leaves
Damage is caused by adult spider mite
Symptoms
-          Damage shows up first, as a stippling of light dots on the leaves; sometimes the leaves take on a bronze color.
-           As feeding continues, the leaves turn yellowish or reddish and drop off.
-           Large amounts of webbing cover leaves, twigs, and fruit.
-           Damage is usually worse when compounded by water stress.
Identification
Adult mites have eight legs and an oval body with two red eyespots near the head end. They usually appear as tiny moving dots
Management
Cultural practices include :
-           Uproot all infected plants, dry and burn the stalks outside the field
-           Use tolerant varieties
-           Practice crop rotation
- Protect the plant with anti-insect net help to reduce spider mite incidence
- Spray Abamectin0.5ml/L, Amitraz. 0.5ml/L
Rootknot nematode
Rootknot nematode :
They cause damage to plant roots
Sypmtoms
-           Wilting and yellowing of plants
-           Stunted growth
Management
Cultural practices
-           Rogue and burn affected plants
-           Remove galled roots
-           Application of poultry manure or cow dung at a rate of 5t/ha can boost crop vigour and reduce nematode infestation on the crop
- French marigold ( Tagetes patula ) or African marigold ( T. erecta ) are very effective trap crops in lowering the rootknot nematode density in soil
- African lettuce ( Launeae taraxacifolia ) in rotation with tomato or pepper reduce the rootknot nematode density in soil.
-           Bacterial wilt diseaseBacterial wilt of tomato ( Ralstonia solanacearum): They affect plant stem
Symptoms
-           wilting of the plant, often without yellowing of the leaves
-           presence of water soaked tissue which later turn brown and leave hollow in the plant stem
-           emission of milky ooze when infested stem is suspended in water
Management
-           plant resistance varieties
-           crop rotation
-           uproot all infected plants, dry and burn the stalks outside the field
-           Fungal disease
Late blight of tomatoLate blight of tomato ( Phytophthora infestans) :
-           They affect the leaves, stems and fruits.
Symptoms
-           Early symptoms look like green water soaked spots which turn into irregular brown necrotic lesions on leaves.
-           Brown lesions develop on the fruits and stems in the later stage of the disease
Management
Cultural practices
- Resistant varieties
- Remove and burn infected plants
- Infested soil mixing with cassava peeling (8 t/ha) help low the infestation level
- Use of neem crab manure (AgroBio at 3 t/ha)
Chemical control
-           Rain (mancozeb 80WP) Apply at a rate of 24-2g/15L
-           Apply Maneb (Trimaneb 80WP or Kadmaneb 80WP) at a rate of 2.3-4.3ml/L
-           Apply Azoxystrobin 500g/kg (e.g.Skyrobin) at a rate of 0.8mls/L
-           Apply Azoxystrobin 200g/l and Difenconazole 125g/l Amistar Top 325SC) at0.8ml/L
-           Tomato Yellow Virus Leaf CurlTomato Yellow Virus Leaf Curl:
They are caused by virus pathogen transmitted by white flies
Symptoms
- Stunted Growth
- Smaller yellow leaves
- Less fruit.
- Unevenly curl leaves edges in different directions with rough surface.
- The flowers and fruits appear healthy.
- Infected seedlings have bushy growth.
Management
- Resistant varieties
- Chemicals control of thrips, and flies