Cultural activities led throughout tomato and pepper cycleFarmers’ practicesResearch recommendations or Standard recommendationUPL-SPF cropping solution
Soil, climate

requirement
The tree requires a deep soil preferably sandy loam or loam, a relatively stable high temperature and continuous moisture throughout the year.
Crop Season

(sowing window)
Planting is preferably done at the onset of rainfall during April-May.Planting is preferably done at the onset of rainfall during May-June.
Variety/hybridVery few percentage of the farmers use improved varieties.· dura palms have kernels with a thick shell; · pisifera palms have kernels with no shell; · tenera palms have kernels with a thin shell.
Pre-sowing

activities

-preparation of

land

-sowing method,

seed rate
land preparation is done mainly manually, which involves clearing of existing vegetation and ridging The use of germinated seeds or seedlings. Some farmers do not sow the seeds by themself. * The serial operations in field establishments are land preparation by clearing existing vegetation, opening rides, pegging, aligning out and labelling possible palm positions. * The use of germinated seeds also referred to as sprouted seeds or sprouts, is recommended for growing oil palm to prevent planting the seed upside down. * Allowed the seedling to develop to the stage that they have well differentiated plumule and radicle before they can be planted in the nursery. * Care is required in handling sprouts to prevent the radicle or plumule from damage. One seedling of palm is sown per stand * Oil palm is planted in the main field in triangular system at spacing of 9 m accommodating 140 palms per ha.
-plant population, spacingFarmers do not follow any recommendation for spacing, No standard plant population can be achieved
Seedling (Nursery)

(both cultures)
Only few farmers raised the seeds in nursery before transplanting. Most farmers plant directlyOil palm growing starts from seeds. * The seed are raised in a nursery that has been planned to have enough space for the desired number of palms. * Arrangement of polyethylene bags in square formations of 45 x 45cm spacing, allows 40,000 seedlings per hectare at a given space in the nursery * The nursery should be sited in location easily reached all year round to lower transportation time and distance between the nursery and the future planting site.
* Site should be flat well drained plane surface to avoid erosion. - The polythene bags are filled with soil, preferably sandy loam or loam. - The soil is made firm by watering for at least a week before planting in order to ensure uniform seedling emergence and good take-off.
Transplanting (both

cultures)
Farmers that raised seed in nursery Transplant seedlings after 10- 12 months to their permanent site.- Transplanting of seedlings should be done after 10- 12 months to their permanent site - Field layout and pegging should precede transplanting to the field - Transplanting can be by “Potting system”, “Ball of Earth” and “Bare Root” system
Irrigation (both

cultures, but tomato

plant irrigation is most

critical)
- Surface or sprinkler irrigation is most recommended. There should be water for irrigation all year round. - During the dry season, 2 litres of water should be applied to each seedling in two equal doses per week. * Mulch can go a long way in helping to conserve moisture. Sow legumes or allow them to develop as natural cover in the plantation after the onset of the rains to cover the soil in order to control erosion and growth of troublesome weeds. To sow legumes, seeds of Calopogonium mucunoides, Peuraria phaseoloides and Centrosema pubescensare mixed in a ratio 2:2:1 and sown into drills or broadcast onto the land at a rate of 5-6kg/ha.
Fertilization (both

cultures)
Only few farmers apply fertilizer on their oil palm farm. Farmers do not follow recommended rates for oil palm Fertilizer application is based on discretion- In addition to the planting of leguminous cover crop to improve the fertility of the soil, application of fertilizer is essential for oil palm to give maximum growth and yield. * Use compound fertilizer NPK Mg in the ratio 12:12:17:2 (rustica) at the rate of 14g (i.e. one table-spoonful) per seedling, per application in two doses, after the second and eighth month of planting * The fertilizer should be spread in a ring about 7.5cm away from a seedling to avoid scorching of the leaves. * Where there is an ample deficiency of magnesium, e.g. the CalabarFasc soil, in Abak, single fertilizers can be applied as a mixture, in the ratio of 1:1:1:2 (NPKMg) by weight. * In other places, eg in Benin, the mixture of NPK Mg fertilizer should be in the ratio of 1:1:1:1 by weight, using sulphate of ammonia, single super phosphate, nitrate or sulphate of potash and magnesium sulphate, respectively. Apply the mixture at the rate of 42g per seedling at the second and eighth months after planting
Inter cultivation &

Weed Management
Oil palm is intercropped with cassava before canopy fully develop* Weeds should be removed promptly to avoid competition with oil palm crop both at the nursery and in the field. * In the nursery manual weeding can be done * both manual and chemical weeding should be done in the field after transplanting. * Paraquat and glyphosate @ 4-5 liters/ha should be used to control weeds.
Pest and disease

management:

* Rhinoceros beetle

* Red palm weevil

* Mealy Bug,

* Nettle Caterpillar

* Aphids
Most farmers encounter infestation of beetle and termite on oil palm farm. Farmers mostly apply any chemical recommended by the agrochemical store mainly cypermethrin* Apply Chlorpyrifos 20% or Chlorpyrifos+cypermethrin twice per season * Apply Chlorpyrifos 48% twice per season * Apply Chlorpyrifos 450g twice per season * Apply Cypermethrin 10ml/L or Trichlorfon 2 g/L * Apply Chlorpyrifos 20% or Chlorpyrifos+cypermethrin twice per season
* Termites * Apply Chlorpyrifos 20% or Chlorpyrifos+cypermethrin twice per season
* nematodes ( Aphelenchus avenae, Helicotylenchus spp., Meloidogyne spp.)* Apply Mancozeb or Thiophanate-Methyl
Oil palm diseases
* Bacterial deseas ()
* Fungal disease (Anthracnose, Seedling blight, Yellow Patch and Vascular Wilt, Basal Trunk Rot; Crown disease and Fruit Rot, Spear (bud) Rot, Freckle, Blasts) Farmers have also are identify seedling blight and fruit rot as major oil palm disease. Chemical control is common with application of mancozeb* Apply Thiram or Dithane M45 (Mencozeb) as prophylactic spray * Apply Hexaconazole, difenoconazole, propiconazole, methylalaxyl, azoxystrobin as curative spray * Spear (bud) Rot can be managed by making a drench 1 to 2 litres of 0.1 per cent Carbendazim around infected plants These diseases can also be managed culturally by: * Remove and destruction of infected part (roughing) * Plant resistant variety
* Harvest Harvest is done when the palm fruits are ripe. The main parts of the oil palm that are harvested for trade are: Palm cabbage, the Sap or Toddy Wine, The Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) and the leaves * Crop maturity is dependent on the variety grown. * The hybrid type mature much earlier between 30 to 36 months * The main parts of the oil palm that are harvested for trade are: Palm cabbage, the Sap or Toddy Wine, The Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) and the leaves * The red-palm-oil, produced by direct processing of the fruits is the crude palm oil (CPO) which is known and called “palm oil” in Nigeria.
* Storage Most farmers stored Processed oil in jerricans arranged on woods or in 50 litres capacity drums. Farmers are not aware of any storage chemical Processed palm oil should be stored in cool dry condition under room temperature.