Cultural activities led throughout rice cycleFarmers’ practices Research recommendations or Standard recommendationUPL-SPF cropping solutions
Soil, climate
Rice can be grown practically on all types of soil. However, heavy soils (which have higher water holding capacities), slightly acidic to neutral (5.5-7.0) are best suited for growing rice.
Crop Season (sowing
* Rain fed rice is seeded in mid-March to mid-April after 2-3 good rains in the forest area * In the savanna area, rain fed rice is seeded in mid-May to mid-June * Irrigated rice is recommended for seeding from March to April.
Variety/hybrid * Some farmers use saved seeds from previous harvest * Common variety used by farmer is Faro 44, FARO 59(NERICA 8), FARO 58 (NERICA 7) * Seed replacement ratio?* Early maturing (90-100 days) FARO 44 (SIPI) * Medium (100-120) FARO 21, 26, 29, 52 (WITA 4) * Late maturing (>120 days) FARO 10, 12, 13, 16, 17
Pre-sowing activities
-preparation of land
Land clearance which involves bush burning as opposed to chemical herbicides application is an aspect of land preparation. Ploughing, harrowing, puddling and bed preparation (to facilitate moisture retention in irrigated rice) are carried out after the land clearance MECHANIZED LAND PREPARATION Land preparation is important in rice production. In fields with perennial weeds, disc plough immediately after harvest to expose the rhizomes (roots) to the sun. Harrow the land twice to provide sufficient tilth and puddling follows after collecting rain or irrigation water in the bunds.
-sowing method, seed rateBroadcasting is the most prominent method of sowing rice; the other common methods are drilling, dibbling and only few practice transplanting. Seed rate depends on the method of sowing practiced.STANDARD PRACTICE IN NIGERIA Land preparation includes clearing the land manually with hoe and cutlass or using non selective herbicides. Land clearing is usually done 2 weeks before sowing. After clearing land is ploughed and harrowed up to 20-25 cm depth either manually using hoe or with the aid of animal drawn plough. The land is prepared into 5m x 5m or 10m x 5 m basin and properly leveled. Bond is constructed around the basin to control the water in the basin. * Dibbling requires 50-60 kg of seed per hectare * Drilling requires 80 kg of seed per hectare * Broadcasting requires 80-100 kg of seed per hectare
-plant population spacingRice seeds or seedlings are planted at very narrow spacing between plant stands and this translate to irregular plant population. Farmers do not follow standard recommendation for spacing5-6 seeds should be dibbled at a spacing 25 cm between rows and 20 cm intra row which should later be thinned to 3-4 seedlings per stand at 2-3 weeks after sowing. In drilling, drill rows should be 15-20 cm apart
Seedling (Nursery) Seeds are broadcasted in sunken beds and mulching materials are used to cover the seedlings, until the second week after sowing the mulch is removed. Afterwards the seedlings are transplanted to the main field between 4-6 weeks after sowing. * Nursery beds should be selected near cultivation areas to ease management. * Seeds are to be soaked in water for 24 hours, incubated in gummy bags (jute bag) for 48 hours in the dark for the seeds to sprout. * Seedlings for 1 hectare should be raised in 500m2 land. * Mulching after sowing to retain moisture in the nursery beds, and remove it after 4 to 6 days (be sure that the seed grew)

Irrigation and water

management (irrigated

Irrigation water is applied from a nearby well or canal by method of surface irrigation where flooding is applied. Irrigation interval depends on the growth stage of the plant and soil type.Irrigation is given to maintain soil moisture near saturation initially and water is let in when surface soil develops hairline cracks. The irrigation intervals, however, vary with the soil texture.
Fertilization In some instances, organic manures of various sources (poultry manure, farm yard manure, compost and green manures etc.) are applied two weeks before planting or during land preparation. Mineral fertilizer i.e. NPK is applied at planting (broadcasting, drilling and dibbling) or transplanting. Urea is applied twice to meet the nitrogen requirement of the plant at 4-6 weeks after planting and at panicle initiation. Integrated nutrient management where nutrient is sourced from organic and inorganic materials is recommended for optimal rice production. * Apply organic manure (farm yard manure, crop residues, compost and poultry manure) to conserve the natural resource base essential for long term sustainability. * The recommended dose of major plant nutrients to rice are 70-50-40, 60-30-30 and 80-30-30 N, P and K/ha under upland (Sahel and Northern Guinea savanna), Southern Guinea savanna and Forest/shallow swamp ecologies respectively. * Full amount of phosphate and potassium fertilizers are to be applied during land preparation * Nitrogen fertilizers are applied in 3 splits; 40%N at planting, 30%N at mid tillering and the other 30% at panicle initiation stage.
Weed ManagementManual hoe and hand weeding is employed in small scale farming 2-3 times throughout the growth life cycle of the plant.Common weeds on rice farms include: - Scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis): annual broad leaf herb - black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides): tufted, slender, annual grass annual meadowgrass (Poa annua): erect annual grass - fat hen (Chenopodium album): annual broad leaf herb Management Hand weeding should be carried out regularly. First weeding should be thorough and done within 2-3 weeks after emergence whereas second weeding should be done at 5-6 weeks after emergence. Use of herbicides I. Pre-emergence * Oxidiazon at 3.0 kg a.i. per hectare (4-5 litres Ronstar 25 EC/ha) II. Roundup (3litres/ha) applied pre land preparation, or spray 3 litres of Gramoxone applied pre-emergence (1-3 days after planting) along with 4-5litres of Oxidiazone or 5-6 litres Butachlor 50 or 60 EC as tank mixture III. Post-emergence * Propanil + bentazon at 3.0kg a.i/ha (5litres Basagram 500PL/ha) * Propanil + Fluorodifen at 3.0kg a.i./ha (5 litres Risane 3000EC/ha) * Propanil + 2.4D Amine at 3.0 kg a.i./ha * Propanil + thiobencarb at 3.0 kg a.i./ha (5 litres Tamarice 336EC/ha) 2-3 weeks after planting.PRESOWING WEED MANAGEMENT: LAND CLEARING- SYSTEMIC NON-SELECTIVE HERBICIDES-PERENNIAL GRASSES AND SEKUS: GLYSPRING/GLYCOT 15-20 DAYS BEFORE SOWING @ 2-3L/HA. CONTACT NON-SELECTIVE HERBICIDES – USE PARACOT/PARASPRING @ 2-3 L/HA 10 DAYS BEFORE SOWING: LIFE LINE IS A NON-SELECTIVE CONTACT HERBICIDE USED @ 1.6 L/HA 10-15 DAYS BEFORE SOWING. LIFE LINE (GLYFOSINATE AMMONIUM) SHOULD BE USED AS A PART OF RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES TO CONTROL GLYPHOSATE AND PARAQUAT RESISTANT WEEDS. LIFE LINE IS ENVIRONENTAL FRIENDLY AND SAVER THAN GLYPHOSATE AND PARAQUAT PRE-EMERGENCE HERBICIDES: SAATHI- USE SAATHI (PYRAZOSULFURON ETHYL 10 WP) @200 G/HA FROM 0-3 DAT/DAS. SAATHI CAN ALSO BE USED AT PODDLING DURING 2-3DAYS BEFORE SOWING OR TRANSPLANTING EARLY POST-EMERGENCE HERBICIDES: USE EROS GOLD @1.75 KG/HA, APPLY EROS GOLD (PYRAZOSULFURON ETHYL AL 0.75%+PRETILACHLOR AL 30%) IMMEDIATELY AFTER RICE GERMINATION IN DSR. IN TRANSPLANTED, EROS GOLD CAN BE USED FROM 0-5 DAT. IT IS A BROAD SPECTRUM 1 SHOT HERBICIDE. PREFERED WEED STAGE FOR CONTROL IS 3-5 LEAVES STAGE POST-EMERGENCE HERBICIDES: KRIS:- USE KRIS (BISPYRIBAC SODIUM) FROM 15-20 DAS/DAT @ 125-150ML/HA ON ACTIVELY GROWING WEEDS. WATER MANAGEMENT AT TIME OF APPLICATION IS IMPORTANT ATALAR (PROPANIL 380 G/L+TRYCYCLOPYR 40 G/L):- HIGHLY SELECTIVE POST-EMERGENCE HERBICIDE FOR BROAD SPECTRUM WEED CONTROL. USE 15-20 DAS/DAT @ 3-4 L/HA RICE PRO/SPRING BOND (PROPANIL+ESTER):- SELECTIVE POST-EMERGENCE HERBICIDE @ 3-4 L/HA
Pest and disease


Farmers have little knowledge regarding the identification and differentiation of insect pests; although neem seed extracts, wood ash and detergent solutions are used in managing insect pests. Traps, poisoned food are used in controlling rodents. Birds are controlled by installing scare crows, cassette tapes and nets. Farmers have zero to little knowledge on identification of diseases of rice. Thus finding it difficult in controlling diseases.Termites (Coptotermes spp., Macrotermes spp., Odontotermes spp.): Symptoms Presence of mud on stems or lodging of plants Management - Cultural practices such as early sowing, and maintaining weed free fields to minimize Termites infestation. - use of resistant/tolerant varieties. - Destroy all dead woods and plant residues. - Locate termite mounds in surrounding bush and destroy Chemical control - Spray Fipronil (Fipro 50 EC) at the rate of 100mls/15L) - Treat exposed termite mounds with Dursban 4E at the rate of 75-100ml per 15L of water - Spray with Deltamethrin base product (e.g. Deltacan at 175-100mls/L - Apply chloropyriphos (2 litre/ha) or carbofuradan 3G (10-15kg/ha) treatment to control termitesTERMITE TERMISPRING:- USE TERMISPRING(CHLORPYRIPHOS 20% EC) @ 1250 ML BISECT (BIFENTHRIN 10 EC) @ 500 ML/HA RENOVA:- RENOVA (THIAMETHOXAM IN WDG) @ 100G/HA
Army wormarmyworms (Spodoptera exempta) * They attack rice leaves on the field * Damage is caused by larvae which invade the leave field in large numbers * Armyworms usually feed at night and damage rice by chewing leaves. * Damage is usually first noticeable around the field margins * Damage may be confined to weedy border rows, grass water ways, contour strips and no-till fields * Ragged leaf feeding is evidence of armyworm feeding. Identification The full-grown armyworm has a greenish brown body with a thin stripe down the center and two orange stripes along each side. Management Cultural practice include: crop rotation, use tolerant varieties - Apply 1 litre/ha of cypermethrin 10 EC or Lamdacyhalothrin 2.5 E for control of stems borers and army worms.ARMY WORM AND STEM BORER:- LANCER AND LANCER GOLD. USE LANCER (ACEPHATE 75 SP) @ 800 G/HA AND LANCER GOLD (ACEPHATE 50%+IMIDACHLOPRID 5% WG) @ 1 KG/HA 2-3 SPRAY DEPENDING ON LEVEL OF INFESTATION
Stem borer stem borers (Busseola fusca): * They attack maize stem on the field * Damage is largely caused by Larvae * Larvae may bore into the stalk at soil level, tunnel upward causing dead heart or climb up the stem and tunnel downward into the whorl * Damage may be confined to weedy border rows, grass water ways, contour strips and no-till fields * They can be identified by unrolling the whorl or damaged plant Identification * Larvae are creamy in colour with a dark brown or purple band around the body. * Several dark lengthwise stripes may be present which may be absent in fully grown larvae Management Cultural practice include: crop rotation, use tolerant varieties - Apply 1 litre/ha of cypermethrin 10 EC or Lamdacyhalothrin 2.5 E for control of stems borers and army worms.AFRICA GALL MIDGE
Africa rice gall midgeAfrica rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzivora): They attack rice leaves Damage is caused by larvae Symptoms Long, white and hollow gall on the leaves. They are the distinctive ‘onion’ or silver shoots which are associated only with gall midge damage Tillers. Identification Larvae is pink to white, up to 5 mm long when fully-grown Management - Cultural practices include : avoid close spacing, use tolerant varieties, crop rotation, discourage movement of seedlings between farms -Apply Furadan TM (Carbofuradan) at 1 litre a.i./ha 20-30 days after transplanting as symptoms are seen on the field of Africa rice gall midge.RODDENTS RATOLS: JINC PHOSPHIDE PRODUCT
Rodents -Apply Furadan TM (Carbofuradan) at 1 litre a.i./ha 20-30 days after transplanting as symptoms are seen on the field of Africa rice gall midge. Rodents: They attack all plant parts Symptom Ragged leaf and stem Management - Keep 2-3 metres border round the field free from grass, weed and burn thrash to control rodents - Build bamboo and palm frond fence (if possible) around the field after planting - Create openings at short intervals and place traps in the openings. -Distribute poisons mixed with food in the uncropped margins or alleys, fencing round the field may deter rats and grasscutters. Local metal traps can also be used. BACTERIA DISEASES COPPER BASED FORMULATION: USE BB (20% COPPER SULPHATE), CUPROFIX DISPERSS (12% COPPER + 30% MANCOZEB).
Birds Birds: The attack tillers and panicles Symptoms Damage on tillers and panicles Management Use scaring devices to control birds. Employ labourers to drive birds away from farms for the first 2 weeks after planting and from heading to harvesting.
Bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae)Bacteria leaf blight Symptoms - water-soaked spots are seen on leaf blades usually starting from leaf tips or on the edges. - The spots increase in length and width with wavy margins and become large yellow streaks that travel the length of the blade of rice. - in severe case Milky ooze can also be seen on the leaves. Management - Growing resistant varieties - Split application of nitrogen fertilizers - Use clean healthy seeds - vectors of the pathogen like borers and grass hoppers should be controlled - chemical control include application of copper oxychloride 3g/L or Bordeaux mixture 1% (copper sulphate 20g/L + quick lime 20g/L) should be sprayed and repeated at weekly intervals
Bacterial leaf streak (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicolaBacterial leaf streak It is leaf disease Symptoms - Initially, small, dark-green and water-soaked streaks on interveins from tillering to booting stage - The progress of the streaks is longitudinal, limited by the veins and soon turn yellow or orange brown. Management - Cultural practice include: use of resistant varieties, and hot water treated seeds. - Crop rotation - Removal and destruction of ratoons, straws and volunteer seedlings left after harvest - Good drainage system especially in seedbeds - Chemical application of Copper oxychloride 500g/kg - Soaking seeds in 0.025% Streptomycine and hot water treatment at 520c for 30 minutesRICE BLAST BLAST (TRICYCLAZOLE 75 WP) @ 300-400 G/HA
Rice blast (Pyricularia griseaRice blast (Pyricularia grisea) Symptoms Elliptical or spindle-shaped lesions on leaves, with pointed ends and grey or white centres; dark-green to reddish-brown margins management Cultural practices are: Use diseased free seeds Use resistant cultivars Burn diseased straws and stubbles split application of Nitrogen fertilizers Chemical control are:
- Application of Diethane at the rate 0f 1.5-2 kg per hectare - Apply Benlate (Benomy 50%) mixed in 3.8 litres of water plus 5 ml of Tenac as sticker where available sprayed at 10 days interval after seeding - Spraying the nursery with 5 gram of Mancozeb 80% wettable powder
HarvestRice is harvested when the grain becomes hard and brown in colour, harvesting is carried with aid of sickle. The plant is cut some centimeters away from the base of the plant.- Rice is ready for harvesting when the grains are hard and are turning yellow/brown (about 30-45 days after flowering). - Harvest when 80-85% of the grains have turned straw colour to avoid shattering. - Cut the rice stems with a sickle at about 15-20 cm above the ground to permit hand threshing. - Tie the panicles in bundles, and then place the tied-up bundles of harvested rice crops in heaps for drying before threshing 80 percent of the paddy.
StorageRice paddy intended for storage should be properly dried. Rice paddy should be stored in a cool, dry and rodent proof condition. Clean the store (Rhumbus) before putting in your paddy. To protect the paddy against insect pests, use 11/2 match boxes full of Actellic 2.5% dust to about 25 kg of paddy. Infested paddy should be fumigated with Phostoxin in air-tight containers at the rate of 1 tablet per jute bag (100 kg of paddy) or 10-15 tablets per ton of paddySTOREX (ALP 57%) UNISHIELD (57%)