Cultural activities led throughout Sorghum cycleFarmers’ practicesResearch recommendations or Standard recommendationUPL-SPF cropping solutions
Soil, climate
requirement
* No soil testing to determine appropriate soil properties for sorghum production * Sowing is done on available soil to the farmersSorghum will yield best on deep, fertile, well-drained loamy soils.The best time to plant is when there is sufficient water in the soil and the soil temperature is 15 °C or higher at a depth of 10 cm. it requires an annual rainfall of 500-800mm [1
Crop Season
(sowing window)
* sowing is done as soon as rain is established in the farmers regionThe best time to plant is dependent on the days to maturity. This is to avoid maturing during rainy seasons which affects the grade of the grain/seed and the cooking qualities. In dry regions the crop should be sown as soon as the rain is established May - June. [1]
Variety/hybrid* Most of the farmers use grains selected from the previous harvest as seeds. * Small population of the farmers are however aware and have understanding of the seed technology. Some of the good varieties include SAMSORG-17(SK 5912),: up t 3 t/ha, late maturing, striga tolerant SAMSORG-38 : up to 4 t/ha, early maturing (75-80 days), tolerant to most leaf diseases SAMSORG 40(ICSV-400) : up to 2 t/ha early maturing (75-80 days), tolerant to striga SAMSORG-41 (ICSV-III) : up to 2 t/ha, early maturring (75-80 days), tolerant to striga
Pre-sowing

activities

-preparation of land

-sowing method,

seed rate

-plant population,

spacing
- Most of the farmers used draft animals for land preparation due to relatively small land area for crop production per farmer. - Most of the farmers don’t follow the recommended spacing and seed rate and as such don’t achieve potential palnt population* minimum tillage for field preparation has been more extensively tested and adopted * The recommended seed rate is 10-13 kg/ha sown at 2.5-3.0cm deep at 75cm inter-row and 25cm intra-row spacing maintaining one plant per stand or hill. * up to 54,000 plant stands is obtained from one hectare. [1]
IrrigationSorghum is grown under irrigation during hot dry season usually from January to April in Northern Nigeria. Up to 60,000 to 72,000 plant stands is obtainable under irrigation [2] Sorghum is grown under irrigation during hot dry season usually from January - April in Northern Nigeria. Up to 60,000 to 72,000 plant stands is obtainable under irrigation [2]
Fertilization (both cultures) * Fertilizer is applied by broadcasting
* Some farmers use side placement method without covering with light soil thus result in volatization of urea fertilizer especially. * Up to 10 bags of fertilizer is used due to application methods that wastes fertilizer
Recommended fertilizer rate per hectare is 60 kg N, 30 kg P2O5 and 30 kg K2O per hectare is recommended for optimum yield. [1]
Inter cultivation &
Weed Management
* Weeding is manually done using hoes * Higher percentage are aware of use of herbicides to control weeds, however, they find it difficult to select the right herbicide for different. * Improper application of chemical not following recommendation is common.Sorghum is best grown intercropped or in rotation with legumes or cotton. Weed 2-3 times before manually or using appropriate herbicides. Weeding is manual done using hoes or Mechanical weeding is done with rotary weeder. Chemicals used in controlling weed include: Round up, glycel, forceup (glyphosate) 5L/ha: - non-selective, post-emergence systemic herbicide Primextra gold (S-metolachlor + atrazine) 5 L/ha selective pre-emergence. grammaxone (paraquat) 4 L/ha non selective contact post emergent[2]
Atrazine + Terbuthylazine at 1.5-2.0 kg a.i/ha selective pre-emergence can give very effective weed control [1]
Pest and disease

management:

* Pests:
* Most of the farmers describe the sorghum pest only as worm. * They are also aware of striga infestation called wuta wuta * They request for chemical that can control the worm, not any specific chemical. * They mostly apply wrong chemical doseIdentified pests of sorghum include: Spittle bug African Army worm: - control by Metador (Lambda cyalothrin) or Furadan 3G Grasshoppers: - control by cypermetrin and dimethoate Sorghum shoot fly:- control by cypermetrin and dimethoate Stem Feeders:- control by Metador (Lambda cyalothrin) Head Feeders:- control by Metador (Lambda cyalothrin) Head bugs: - control by cypermetrin and dimethoate These pests can be managed by applying insecticides like, malathion, endosulfan, carbaryl and trichlorphon. Cultural methods include crop rotation, early planting, burying crop residues, use of tolerant varieties [1]
* Bacteria diseasesGrey leaf spot, sooty stripe [2]
* Fungal diseaseGrain mold: Spray ear-heads with Aurefungin 200 PPM + 0.2 % Captan three times from flowering at 10 days interval or Dithane M 45 – 0.2 % + Bavistin 0.2 % twice at 10 days interval after commencement of flowering [4]. Charcoal rot: Grow resistant cultivars; apply minimum dose of Nitrogenous Fertilizers with low plant density in infected soils; adopt mulching with wheat straw; and soil treatment with Thiram @ 4.5 kg/ha at the time of sowing [4].
* Virus diseasesThese diseases can be managed mostly by planting resistant varieties [1]
* HarvestHarvesting should be done when the grains are fully matured and dry i.e whe the leaves turn from yellow to brown with the lower leaves drying up completely [1]Harvesting should be done when the grains are fully matured and dry i.e whe the leaves turn from yellow to brown with the lower leaves drying up completely [1]
* Storage* Farmers store harvested sorghum in barns and extra room in their houses. * Some store in actual store house. * Most Farmers apply herbs to sorghum in store to prevent damage by storage pest. * Only few used synthetic storage chemicalDry sorghum grains should be stored in cool dry condition at 8-10% moisture content after treatment with storage chemicals like thiram 2g/kg, phosphine 2g/kg [4]

Reference(s)

1. NAERLS and SG-2000 (2016). N-Power Agricultural Extension Master Trainers’ Manual.

2. IITA-IYA (2014). Maize Seed Production Manual.